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Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products, Fourth Edition
Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products, Fourth Edition
"...remains a useful summary of grain storage, providing a valuable initial overview of the topic, particularly for students...."
—Food Australia

Item No. 50740
Member Price: 143.10
159.00
You could save: 10.0%

The most thorough and authoritative reference on the principles and practices of storing and handling cereal grains and their products. Includes more than 600 pages representing more than 48 years of accumulated knowledge.

Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products, Fourth Edition


Physical Properties of Cereal Grains

R.C. Hoseney and J.M. Faubion

Introduction
General Structure and Proportion of Principal Parts
General Architecture
Husk
Pericarp and Aleurone
Embryo
Endosperm

Wheat, Rye, Barley, and Triticale
Rice
Oats
Corn, Sorghum, and Millet

Physical Properties of Grain

Bulk Density
Absolute Density and Grain Size
Calculation of the Void Volume in a Grain Mass
Angle of Repose
Distribution of Weight in a Bin
Flow of Grain from a Bin
Hardness of Grain
Breakage of Grain
Stress Cracking
Cleaning of Grain
Grain Dust

Moisture and Its Measurement

C.M. Christensen, Bryon S. Miller, and John A. Johnston

Introduction
Practical Significance of Moisture in Grain Merchandising, Storage, and Handling

Moisture Content and Microbiological Deterioration
Sampling for Moisture Content

Behavior of Moisture in Grain Bulks

Variation
Transfer

Relative Humidity, Moisture Content, and Hysteresis

Relative Humidity and Moisture Content
Hysteresis

Methods of Measuring Moisture Content

Fundamental or Basic Reference Methods
Routine Reference Methods
Practical Methods

Biochemical, Functional, and Nutritive Changes During Storage

Yeshajahu Pomeranz

Introduction
Respiration

Measurement of Respiration
Respiration of Stored Grain
Dry Matter Loss

Biochemical Changes

Carbohydrate Changes
Changes in Nitrogenous Compounds
Sick Wheat
Lipids

Nutritive Changes

Mineral Changes
Changes in Carbohydrates
Protein Changes
Vitamin Changes

Effects of Drying

General
Malting
Feeding Value
Corn Milling
Rice Quality
Breadmaking
Blending of Wet and Dry Grain

Organic Acid-Treated Grain
Dormancy, Viability, Germination, and Malting

Dormancy
Controlloing Length of Dormancy
Viability
Maintaining Seed Viability and Quality

Functional Changes in Wheat

General
Decreases in Breadmaking Quality - Wheat and Wheat Flour
Wheat Whole Meal, Bran, and Germ
Postharvest Maturation of Wheat
Postmilling Maturation of Flour
The Nature of Maturation
Changes in Flavor and Odor

Functional Changes in Other Cereals

Corn
Rice
Barley
Oats and Breakfast Cereals
Millet

Indexes of Deterioration

Appearance and Odor
Respiration
Germination
Biochemical Tests
Summary

Development of Storage Techniques: A Historical Perspective

Carl Reed

Storage in the Ancient World
Storage in the Middle Ages
Effects of Colonization and Industrialization
The Development of Modern Storage
Storage Structures in Use Today


Whole Grain Storage

J.E. Bailey

General Considerations

Functions and Definitions
Conditions of Safe Storage
Quality Measurement

Kinds of Storage Facilities

On the Ground
Underground
Bagged
Farm Bins
Bin Sites
Country Elevators
Terminal Elevators

Structural Requirements of Storage Bins

Upright or Silo-Type Bins
Flat Bins

Grain Handling Equipment

Receiving and Shipping
Cleaning and Drying
Scales and Weights
Automation
Behavior of Grain in Bulk Handling

Maintaining Quality in Storage

Basic Threats
Insects
Fungi
Moisture
Temperature
Spoutlines
Remedial Actions
Costs

Operating Hazards and Safety Measures
Storage Capacities


Drying Cereal Grains

Roger C. Brook

Introduction
Concepts and Terminology

Moisture Content
Bushel
Shrink
Dryer Characteristics
Air Psychrometrics
Dryer Performance

Drying Theory

Thin-Layer Drying
Grain Equilibrium Moisture Content
Heat and Mass Balances
Deep-Bed Drying

Drying Systems

Fans
Low-Temperature Bin Dryers
High-Temperature Bin-Batch Dryers
Continuous-Flow Bin Dryers
High-Temperature Column Dryers
Concurrent-Flow Dryers
Other Dryer Types

Grain Cooling

In-Bin Cooling
Dryeration
Combination High-Temperature/Low-Temperature Drying

Energy Conservation

Solar Energy for Grain Drying
Biomass Energy for Grain Drying
Electrical Energy for Grain Drying

Evaluating Drying Systems


Aeration and Stored Grain Management

G.H. Foster and John Tuite

Introduction
Purposes of Aeration

Grain Temperature Control
Other Uses

Aeration Theory

Moisture Reduction During Cooling
Aeration with High- or Low-Humidity Air
Cooling or Warming Zones

Aeration System Design

Airflow Rates
Fan Selection
Air Distribution

Aeration System Operation

Seasonal Aeration Schedules
Daily Fan Operation
Airflow Direction
Other Management Suggestions

Alternative Storage Practices

C.H. Bell and D.M. Armitage

Controlled Atmospheres

Introduction
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
Gas Produced by Combustion of Hydrocarbons
Other Gases and Mixtures
Use and Application of Controlled Atmospheres
Airtight Storage of Damp Grain

Refrigeration

Introduction
Engineering Aspects
Biological Considerations
Conclusion

Disinfestation Using Hot Air

Introduction
Determination of Safe Temperatures for Heating
Temperature-Time Combinations Required to Kill Insects
Fluidized Bed Heating
Spouted Bed
Pneumatic Conveyors
Costs of Heat Treatments
Other High-Temperature Disinfestation Methods

Microflora

D.B. Sauer, R.A. Meronuck, and C.M. Christensen

Introduction
Microflora of Grains and Seeds

Bacteria
Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts

When Storage Fungi Invade Seeds
Effects of Storage Fungi on Seeds

Reduction in Germinability
Discoloration
Respiration and Heating
Mustiness, Caking, and Total Decay
Catastrophic Losses

Conditions That Promote Damage to Grains by Storage Fungi

Moisture Content, Temperature, and Time as Determinants of Storage Risk
Degree to Which Grain Is Already Invaded by Storage Fungi
Foreign Material and Mechanical Damage - Insects and Mites

Temperature Monitoring and Aeration
Sampling and Testing
Predicting Grain Storability
Characteristics of Major Storage Fungi

Aspergillus restrictus
Aspergillus glaucus
Group
Aspergillus candidus
Aspergillus ochraceus
Aspergillus flavus
Penicillium

Grain Preservatives


Mycotoxins

David M. Wilson and David Abramson

Introduction
Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Storage Conditions Aspergillus Mycotoxins

Properties
Analysis
Fungi
Occurrence

Penicillium Mycotoxins

Properties
Analysis
Fungi
Occurrence

Aspergillus and Penicillium Growth and Mycotoxin Development in Storage
Fusarium Mycotoxins

Properties
Analysis
Fungi
Occurrence
Development

Rodents

Kenton L. Harris and F.J. Baur

Significance

General
Local Storage Aspects
Grain Contamination
Farm and Environmental Considerations

Types of Rodents

Wild
Commensal

Rodent Biology in Rodent Control

Life History and Habits
Recognition of Rodent Infestations
Summary of Rodent Habits and Introduction to Control
Ecology of Rodent Control

Control Measures Against Rats and Mice

Sanitation
Rodent-Proofing
Rodent Control Through Poisoning
Fumigation
Trapping

Insects: Identification, Damage, and Detection

John R. Pedersen

Introduction
Insect Classification, Structure, and Development

Classification
Structure
Development

Insects in Stored Grain and Grain Products

Internal Infestors
External Infestors
Parasites and Predators of Grain Insects

Ecological and Environmental Factors Affecting Stored-Product Insect Populations

Temperature
Moisture
Dockage

Damage Caused by Stored-Product Insects

Direct Damage to Grain Kernels and Grain Products
Indirect Damage to Grain and Grain Products

Detection of Insect Infestation

Visual Examination
Detecting Internal Infestors
Detecting Insects in the Environment

Control of Stored-Grain Insects

Phillip K. Harein and Robert Davis

Introduction
Chemical Grain Protectants

Inert Dusts
Malathion
Pyrethrins
Dichlorvos
Chlorpyrifos-Methyl
Pirimiphos-Methyl

Insecticide Resistance
Fumigants

Methyl Bromide
Phosphine
Hydrogen Phosphide
Chloropicrin
Dichlorvos

Variables That Influence the Efficiency of Fumigation

Temperature and Moisture
Methods of Application

Fumigation Safety Procedures
Modified Atmospheres
Physical Control and Exclusion

Physical Handling
Temperature
Irradiation
Insect Traps

Biological Control
Biorationals
Certification Requirements to Purchase and Apply Restricted-Use Pesticides
Application

Preharvest Preparation
Putting Grain into Storage
Care During Storage

Integrated Pest Management of Stored-Grain Insects

David W. Hagstrum and Paul W. Flinn

Introduction
IPM Concepts
Insect Ecology

Insect Population Growth
Grain Environment
Insect Distribution

Economic Injury Levels and Thresholds

Multiple EILs
Developing Economic Thresholds

Sampling for Insects

Number of Samples
Traps vs. Grain Samples

IPM Practices

Sanitation
Parasites
Aeration
Fumigation
Protectants
Resistance Management

Area-Wide Management
Prospects for the Future

Automated Monitoring of Insects
Expert Systems and Stored-Grain Management

Sampling, Inspecting, and Grading

John Mack Manis

Introduction
History
United States Standards for Grain
Sampling

Diverter-Type Mechanical Sampler
Probe or Trier Sampler
Pelican Sampler
Ellis Cup Sampler
Probe-Type Mechanical Sampler
Woodside-Type Mechanical Sampler
Sampling Problems

Inspection and Grading

Preliminary Examinations
Condition Factors
Type
Class and Subclass
Test Weight per Bushel
Moisture
Dockage
Foreign Material
Damaged Kernels
Other Factors
Grading
Inspection Problems

Recent and Future Developments

Soybean Oil and Protein Analysis
Falling Number Test
Hidden/Dead Infestation Detection
Objective Wheat Classing
Pesticide/Herbicide Residue Survey

The Economics of Grain Storage

Sarahelen Thompson and Philip Garcia

The Economic Determinants of Private Grain Storage
Grain Storage Facilities in the U.S. Grain Marketing Channel
Costs of Grain Storage
Grain Storage: The Role of Futures Markets

Pricing and the Temporal Allocation of Stocks
Risk Management: Hedging

Government Policies That Influence Grain Storage
Summary


Index

"...remains a useful summary of grain storage, providing a valuable initial overview of the topic, particularly for students...."
—Food Australia 

"...much new and updated material has been included ."
—Food Trade Review

Publish Date: 1992
Format: 6" × 9" hardcover
ISBN: 978-0-913250-74-7
Pages: 615
Images: 106 drawings
Publication Weight: 3 lbs

Edited by David B. Sauer

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