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Wheat Flour, Second Edition
Wheat Flour, Second Edition
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A straightforward, practical guide that offers coverage of specific product applications, problem resolution, and basics of wheat and milling.

  • Swiftly troubleshoot wheat quality issues
  • Quickly orient yourself and colleagues on the many aspects of wheat flour
  • Item No. 27908
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    Wheat Flour, Second Edition


    Wheat

    Historical Perspective
    Wheat Types
    Wheat Breeding
    Growth Regions
    Wheat Consumption and General Uses
    Kernel Structure
    Germination and Growth
    Wheat Production Problems
    World Wheat Production and Marketing
    Logistics
    Wheat Standards
    Wheat Storage
    Factors Important to the Wheat Producer


    Milling

    Historical Perspective
    Wheat Sourcing
    Dry Milling:

    process
    milling
    products

    Milling of Soft Wheat, Hard Wheat, and Durum:

    grinding
    air classification

    Flour Storage
    Wet Milling
    Factors Important to the Miller


    Composition of Commercial Flour

    Fundamental Composition:

    protein
    starch
    nonstarch polysaccharides
    lipids

    Functionality of the Flour Components:

    gluten
    starch
    other components

    Flour Enzymes:

    amylases
    proteases
    lipases and lipoxygenases
    pentosanases
    phytase
    polyphenol oxidase

    Flour Additives:

    enrichment
    oxidants
    reducing agents
    chlorination
    bleaching agents
    malt


    Wheat Nutrition

    Nutrition of Whole Wheat
    Nutrition of the Major Wheat Components
    Wheat-Related Nutritional Issues:

    gluten nutritional quality
    health conditions
    other conditions implicating gluten

    Whole Vs. Refined Wheat Products
    Wheat and Popular Diets


    Wheat and Flour Testing

    Tests Exclusive to Wheat:

    test weight
    thousand-kernel weight
    kernel hardness
    flour yield

    Color Tests:

    Polyphenol Oxidase Test
    Pekar color (slick) test
    Agtron color test

    Odor Test
    Basic Analyses:

    moisture
    ash
    protein
    pH
    enrichment detection
    semolina granulation

    Flour Performance Tests—Recording Dough Mixers:

    farinograph
    mixograph
    Mixolab
    doughLAB

    Flour Performance Tests—Other:

    extensigraph
    alveograph
    gluten washing tests
    alkaline water retention capacity
    solvent retention capacity profile
    SDS sedimentation

    Enzyme Analyses:

    falling number
    Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph/Rapid Visco Analyser

    Viscosity Methods
    Microbial Assays
    Baking Tests
    Starch Tests:

    starch content
    damaged starch

    Near-Infared Reflectance Methods


    Specifying “Quality” Flour

    Quality and Consistency
    Communication
    Flour Specifications:

    general information in a comprehensive flour specification
    testing procedures
    hard wheat products
    soft wheat products
    durum products

    Meeting and Enforcing Specifications
    Crop Year Changeover:

    water relationships and new-crop flour
    gathering information
    assimilating the information
    disseminating the information
    upgrading specifications


    Products from Hard Wheat Flour

    Ingredients:

    bread
    related products
    formulating healthy hard wheat products

    Processing:

    scaling
    dough processing
    proofing
    baking
    cooling
    processing healthy hard-wheat products

    Product Issues:

    appearance
    texture
    flavor
    shelf life issues

    Processing Issues
    Fundamental Mechanism of Breadmaking
    Troubleshooting


    Products from Soft Wheat Flour

    Ingredients:

    flour
    chemical leavening
    shortening
    sucrose
    egg whites

    Formulation:

    cakes and related products
    doughnuts
    crackers
    cookies
    biscuits
    pie crusts
    formulating healthy soft wheat products

    Processing:

    cakes and related products
    doughnuts
    crackers
    cookies
    biscuits
    pie crusts

    Products and Processing Problems:

    cakes
    doughnuts
    crackers
    cookies
    biscuits
    pie crusts

    Troubleshooting


    Pasta, Noodle, and Breakfast Cereal Products

    Ingredients and Formulation:

    pasta
    noodles
    breakfast cereals

    Processing:

    pasta
    noodles
    breakfast cereals

    Product and Processing Issues:

    pasta
    noodles
    breakfast cereals

    Troubleshooting


    Useful Websites

    Glossary

    Index

    Publish Date: 1/1/16
    Format: 8” × 10” softcover
    ISBN: 978-1-891127-90-8
    Pages: 164
    Publication Weight: 2 lbs

    By William A. Atwell and Sean Finnie

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