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Cultivation and Diseases of Proteaceae:
Cultivation and Diseases of Proteaceae:

Proteaceae cut-flowers have become a highly desirable crop for the export market. This book is important because diseases cause a loss in yield and also limit the export of these flowers due to strict phytosanitary regulations.

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Proteaceae represent a prominent family of flowering plants in the Southern Hemisphere.  Because of their beauty, unique appearance, and relatively long shelf life, Proteaceae cut-flowers have become a highly desirable crop for the export market.

The cultivation of Proteaceae is a thriving industry that provides employment in countries where these flowers are grown, often in areas that are otherwise unproductive agriculturally. Diseases cause a loss in yield, and also limit the export of these flowers due to strict phytosanitary regulations. In this publication the fungi that cause leaf, stem and root diseases on Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea are treated. 

Data are provided pertaining to the taxonomy, identification, host range, distribution, pathogenicity, molecular characteristics and control of these pathogens. Taxonomic descriptions and illustrations are provided and keys are included to distinguish species in genera where a number of species affect Proteaceae. Disease symptoms are described and colour photographs are included.  Where known, factors that affect disease epidemiology are discussed. Disease management strategies are also presented that will assist growers and advisors in making appropriate choices for reducing disease in specific areas. Information is also provided relating to crop improvement, cultivation techniques, harvesting and export considerations. 

Further development and expansion of this industry depends on producing and obtaining disease-free germplasm from countries where these plants are indigenous. For that reason it is important to document the fungi that occur on Proteaceae, and to establish the distribution of these fungi. These data are essential for plant quarantine services for use in risk assessments.

Cultivation and Diseases of Proteaceae: Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea

Section 1: Introduction

Purpose and content
Materials and methods

Isolation from leaf and stem samples
Isolation from wilted or chlorotic plants
Culture and microscopic characters
Voucher specimens
DNA isolation, amplification and analyses

Section 2: Proteaceae – Importance, Cultivation and Harvesting

The cut-flower industry
Crop improvement

Genetic resources, the gene bank and sampling
Breeding programmes/cultivar development
International protea cultivar registration

Propagation of protea products

Sexual reproduction (seed)
Vegetative propagation (cuttings)
Grafting and budding
Micropropagation (tissue culture)


Establishment requirements
Training and pruning
Weed control
Flowering pot plants


Leaf blackening and the control thereof in Protea cut flowers
Water relations

Phytosanitary regulations and export considerations

Diseases and insect pests
Global trade and the role of phytosanitary regulations
Phytosanitary measures and protea production

Section 3: Infectious Diseases

Chapter 1. Foliar Diseases

A note regarding name changes
Aureobasidium leaf spot

Aureobasidium leucospermi
Aureobasidium proteae

Batcheloromyces leaf spot

Batcheloromyces alistairii
Batcheloromyces leucadendri
Batcheloromyces leucospermi
Batcheloromyces proteae
Batcheloromyces sedgefieldii

Pathology of Batcheloromyces spp.

Botryosphaeria leaf blight and stem canker

Neofusicoccum protearum

Brunneosphaerella leaf blight

Brunneosphaerella jonkershoekensis
Brunneosphaerella nitidae
Brunneosphaerella protearum

Key to Brunneosphaerella species on Proteaceae

Calonectria leaf spot

Calonectria colhounii

Camarosporium leaf spot

Camarosporium sp.

Catenulostroma leaf spot

Catenulostroma elginense
Catenulostroma microsporum
Catenulostroma protearum

Chaetochalara leaf spot

Chaetochalara proteae

Cladophialophora leaf spot

Cladophialophora proteae

Coleophoma leaf spot

Coleophoma protea

Coleroa leaf spot

Coleroa senniana

Coniothyrium leaf spot

Coniothyrium nitidae
Coniothyrium septatum
Curreya grandicipis
Microsphaeropsis proteae

Coniozyma leaf spot

Coniozyma leucospermi
Key to Coleophoma (Co.) Coniothyrium (Cm.), Coniozyma (Ca.), Curreya (Cu.) and Microsphaeropsis (Ms.) species on Proteaceae

Diaporthe and Diplodina leaf spot

Diaporthe leucospermi
Diplodina microsperma

Didymosphaeria leaf spot

Didymosphaeria futilis

Fusicladium leaf spot

Fusicladium proteae

Harknessia leaf spot

Harknessia leucospermi
Harknessia protearum

Helicosingula leaf spot

Helicosingula leucadendri

Heteroconium leaf spot

Heteroconium neriifoliae

Lembosia “Clasterosporium” leaf spot

Lembosia proteae

Leptosphaeria leaf spot

Leptosphaeria leucadendri

Lophiostoma leaf spot

Lophiostoma fuckelii
Lophiostoma rubi

Mycosphaerella leaf spot

Mycosphaerella leucospermi
Mycosphaerella marksii
Mycosphaerella waimeana

Pallidocercospora and Pseudocercospora “Stigmina” leaf spots

Pallidocercospora holualoan
Pallidocercospora konae
Pseudocercospora californiae
Pseudocercospora leucadendri
Pseudocercospora protearum
Pseudocercospora stromatosa

Pestalotiopsis leaf spot

Pestalotiopsis protearum

Phaeophleospora leaf spot

Phaeophleospora abyssinicae
Phaeophleospora capensis
Phaeophleospora concentrica
Phaeophleospora congesta
Phaeophleospora keniensis
Phaeophleospora protearum

Key to Phaeophleospora species on Proteaceae

Phyllosticta leaf spot

Phyllosticta capitalensis

Physalospora leaf spot

Physalospora hawaiiensis

Pseudohendersonia leaf spot

Pseudohendersonia proteae

Ramularia leaf spot

Ramularia proteae
Ramularia stellenboschensis
Ramularia vizellae

Saccharata leaf tip dieback

Saccharata capensis
Saccharata intermedia
Saccharata proteae

Septoria leaf spot

Septoria grandicipis
Septoria protearum

Stictis leaf spot

Stictis leucospermi

Stilbospora leaf spot

Stilbospora proteae

Teratosphaeria leaf spot and blight

Teratosphaeria associata Teratosphaeria bellula
Teratosphaeria capensis
Teratosphaeria fibrillosa
Teratosphaeria jonkershoekensis
Teratosphaeria knoxdavesii
Teratosphaeria macowanii
Teratosphaeria maculiformis
Teratosphaeria marasasii
Teratosphaeria maxii
Teratosphaeria parva
Teratosphaeria persoonii
Teratosphaeria proteae-arboreae
Teratosphaeria wingfieldii
Key to Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species on Proteaceae
Key to Mycosphaerella-like asexual morphs on Proteaceae

Uwebraunia leaf spot

Dissoconium proteae
Uwebraunia commune
Uwebraunia dekkeri

Key to Dissoconium and Uwebraunia species on Proteaceae

Verrucisporota leaf spot

Verrucisporota proteacearum

Vizella leaf spot

Vizella interrupta

Untreated taxa

Lembosia faureae

Chapter 2. Stem, Shoot and Flower Diseases

Botrytis seedling and flower-head blight

Botrytis cinerea
Epidemiology and control

Botryosphaeria stem cankers

Diplodia seriata
Lasiodiplodia theobromae
Neofusicoccum australe
Neofusicoccum kwambonambiense
Neofusicoccum parvum
Neofusicoccum protearum

Epidemiology and control
The role of environmental stress
Wound pathogens
Pathogens of Proteaceae
Disease cycle and epidemiology
Key to Botryosphaeria-like species on Proteaceae

Ceratocystis canker

Ceratocystis albifundus

Colletotrichum anthracnose disease complex

Colletotrichum acutatum
Colletotrichum alienum
Colletotrichum boninense
Colletotrichum karstii
Colletotrichum nymphaeae
Colletotrichum simmondsii

Epidemiology and control
Disease cycle and epidemiology

Diaporthe stem canker

Diaporthe saccarata

Elsinoë (Sphaceloma) scab disease

Elsinoë fecunda
Elsinoë leucospermi
Elsinoë proteae
Elsinoë protearum

Epidemiology and control
Disease cycle and epidemiology
Species susceptibility
Economic importance
Key to Elsinoë species on Proteaceae

Epicoccum (=Phoma) brown stem canker

Epicoccum sorghi

Phloeosporella canker

Phloeosporella protearum

Pyrenophora (Drechslera) blight disease complex

Pyrenophora biseptata
Pyrenophora leucospermi

Poorly understood diseases

Rhizopus mould
Schizophyllum trunk rot
Sclerotinia dieback
Silver leaf disease

Chapter 3. Root Diseases

Armillaria root rot

Armillaria gallica
Armillaria luteobubalina
Armillaria mellea

Charcoal rot

Macrophomina phaseolina

Calonectria root rot

Calonectria pauciramosa

Fusarium wilt

Fusarium oxysporum

Ilyonectria black foot rot

Ilyonectria capensis
Ilyonectria leucospermi
Ilyonectria macrodidyma
Ilyonectria protearum
Ilyonectria torresensis
Ilyonectria vredenhoekensis

Phytophthora root rot and sudden death disease

Phytophthora cinnamomi
Phytophthora nicotianae

Pythium root rot

Pythium vexans

Rhizoctonia root rot

Rhizoctonia solani

Poorly understood diseases

Rosellinia root rot
Rosselinia spp.
Verticillium wilt
Verticillium spp.

Chapter 4. Diseases Caused by Bacteria and Phytoplasms

Pseudomonas leaf spot

Pseudomonas syringae

Witches’ brooms

General Index
Host Index
Nomenclatural Novelties
Colour Plates

Publish Date: 2013
Format: 8" x 11.5" hardcover
Pages: 360
Images: 186 images
Publication Weight: 4 lbs

By Pedro W. Crous, Sandra Denman, Joanne E. Taylor, Lizeth Swart, Carolien M. Bezuidenhout, Lynn Hoffman, Mary E. Palm, and Johannes Z. Groenewald

List Price:109.00
Cultivation and Diseases of Proteaceae: Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea

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