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Studies in Mycology No 63: European species of Hypocrea
Studies in Mycology No 63: European species of Hypocrea
At present 75 species of Hypocrea have been identified in temperate Europe. Nineteen green-spored species and their Trichoderma asexual states are here described in detail.
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At present 75 species of Hypocrea have been identified in temperate Europe. Nineteen green-spored species and their Trichoderma asexual states are here described in detail. Extensive searches for Hypocrea teleomorphs in 14 European countries, with emphasis on Central Europe, yielded more than 620 specimens within five years.

Cultures were prepared from ascospores and used to study anamorph morphology, and to sequence three genetic markers. ITS was used for identification, while RNA polymerase II subunit b (rpb2) and translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) were analysed for phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus. Seventy-five species of Hypocrea, two species of Protocrea, and Arachnocrea stipata, are herein identified in temperate Europe.

Current data suggest that the biodiversity of Hypocrea / Trichoderma above soil exceeds the number of species isolated from soil. In Europe, 26 species of those forming teleomorphs produce hyaline conidia, while 42 green-conidial species are known. Specific associations, either with host fungi or trees have been found, but the majority of species seems to be necrotrophic on diverse fungi on wood and bark.

Studies in Mycology No. 63: European species of Hypocrea Part I. The green-spored species


Introduction

the teleomorph genus Hypocrea - a brief history
The anamorph genus Trichoderma - taxonomic history
Species concept
Economic and social aspects of Hypocrea / Trichoderma
A note on nomenclature
Scope and objective of this project
Strategy of species identification and recognition


Materials and Methods

Isolates and specimens
Growth characterisation
Morphological observations
DNA extraction, PCR amplications and sequencing
Molecular phylogenetic analyses


Results and Discussion

Biodiversity, number of species
Life cycle, contaminations and reliability of ascospore isolations
Macro-ecology of Hypocrea in Europe
Phylogeny and generic limits
Morphology
Definitions and taxonomic value of morphological traits

Teleomorph
Cultures
Conidiation

Phenotype of the Hypocrea teleomorph
Phenotype of the cultures and anamorphs
Growth rates


Taxonomy

The green-spored species of Hypocrea in Europe
Key to the species of Hypocrea with green ascospores occurring in Europe


Description of the Species

Hypocrea aeruginea
Hypocrea alni
Hypocrea aureoviridis
Hypocrea brunneoviridis
Hypocrea dacrymycella
Hypocrea danica
Hypocrea epimyces
Hypocrea estonica
Hypocrea fomiticola
Hypocrea gelatinosa
Hypocrea lixii
Hypocrea longipilosa
Hypocrea parepimyces
Hypocrea parestonica
Hypocrea phyllostachydis
Hypocrea sinuosa
Hypocrea spinulosa
Hypocrea strictipilosa
Hypocrea thelephoricola

Acknowledgements

References

Index of Fungal Names
Publish Date: 2009
Format: 8.5" x 11" softcover
Pages: 93
Publication Weight: 2 lbs

By Walter M. Jaklitsch

Studies in Mycology No. 63: European Species of Hypocrea Part I: The Green-Spored Species

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