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Fire Blight: History, Biology, and Management
Fire Blight: History, Biology, and Management
"...a powerful assessment of the science and nature of one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases affecting fruit trees...an in-depth assessment of the problem. A 'must' for an in-depth botany holding."
—The Midwest Book Review

Item No. 43948
263.20

Three world-renowned experts provide comprehensive scientific coverage of this first known plant disease caused by a bacterium. Fire blight is present in 47 countries and affects many common host plants in the rose family worldwide. Although enormous progress has been made against the disease, it remains a devastating and difficult problem to control in certain locations under optimum weather conditions and agricultural scientists must remain diligent. It is expected that the disease may eventually spread around the globe to all countries growing pome fruit, and the knowledge presented here will be an important first line of defense.

This nearly 500-page book includes a history of the disease, plus detailed information about the biology, epidemiology, and host-pathogen interactions, as well as horticultural, chemical, and biological control management strategies. It includes important coverage of the discovery of pathogenicity and virulence genes, induced resistance, and the variability and diversity of the bacterial pathogen. These research advances offer promise for controlling the disease, where the traditional studies of epidemiology and conventional chemical or biological control have been unsuccessful. An addendum chapter compiling most of the literature covering phytobacteriological and molecular techniques for quick and easy reference is included.

The book will be especially useful to scientists beginning work on this disease and essential wherever scientists and the growers they serve are fighting its devastating effects on the economically important crops of pear and apple.

Fire Blight: History, Biology, and Management


Part I: HISTORY

Chapter 1: Early Theories and Discoveries Regarding Fire Blight

Early Theories (1780–1880)
Discovery of Bacterial Origin and Proof of Pathogenicity (1881–1900)
Dissemination and Disease Control (1901–1925)


Chapter 2: Spread and Current Distribution of Fire Blight

North America
West Pacific Rim
Western Europe
The Mediterranean Region
Central and Eastern Europe


Chapter 3: Losses Due to Fire Blight and Economic Importance of the Disease

The Most Traumatic Fire Blight Epiphytotics Ever Recorded
Losses Due to Fire Blight Outside the United States

Part II: BIOLOGY

THE DISEASE

Chapter 4: Symptomatology of Fire Blight and Host Range of Erwinia amylovora

Symptoms of Fire Blight
Host Range of the Fire Blight Pathogen


THE PATHOGEN

Chapter 5:Taxonomy, Detection, and Identification of Erwinia amylovora

Taxonomic Description
Differentiation from Other Erwinia Species
Detection and Identification


Chapter 6: Growth and Physiology of Erwinia amylovora

Morphology and Cultural Characteristics
Growth and Metabolism
Bacterial Exudate and Toxin
Effect of Temperature, pH, and Light on Growth and Survival
Chemotaxis and Motility
Longevity of Erwinia amylovora
Sensitivity to Bacteriophage
Effect of Microorganisms
Resistance to Chemicals and Antibiotics


Chapter 7: Genetic Diversity of Erwinia amylovora

The Concepts of Strains
Virulence
Resistance to Chemicals and Antibiotics
Plasmids
Characterization by PCR
Other Molecular Methods

HOST–PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS

Chapter 8: Physiology and Biochemistry of Fire Blight Infection

Pathological Anatomy
Migration in Host Tissue
Host Ultrastructure
Biochemistry of Host Tissues
Phenol Metabolism
Hypersensitive Reaction
Osmotic Potential and Sorbitol Concentration of Host Tissue


Chapter 9: Pathogenicity and Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora

Early Studies of Pathogenicity and Development of a Mutagenesis System for the Study of Pathogenicity
The Hrp Pathogenicity Island of E. amylovora
hrp Genes and Proteins Secreted Through the Hrp Type III Secretion System
Exopolysaccharides
Siderophores
Other Virulence Factors


EPIDEMIOLOGY

Chapter 10: The Disease Cycle of Fire Blight

Primary Infection
Secondary Infection
Dissemination


Chapter 11: Effect of Host Conditions, Cultural Practices, and Environment on Disease Development

Host Conditions
Cultural Practices
Meteorological Factors


Part III: MANAGEMENT

ENHANCING HOST RESISTANCE

Chapter 12: Breeding for Resistance to Fire Blight

Evaluation of Host Resistance
Conventional Breeding for Resistance
Biotechnological Approaches to Enhancing Fire Blight Resistance


Chapter 13: Utilizing Host Resistance to Fire Blight

Resistance of Commercial Cultivars
Rootstocks
Recent Rootstock Research and Field Trials (1980–2005)
Artificial Inoculation Procedures


Chapter 14: Chemical and Cultural Approaches to Enhance Host Resistance to Fire Blight

Plant Growth Regulators
Induced Host Resistance
Orchard Management


REDUCING INOCULUM LEVELS

Chapter 15: Exclusion of Fire Blight by Sanitation, Eradication, and Quarantine

Sanitation and Eradication
Importance of Quarantine for Areas Without Fire Blight
Risk Associated with Movement of Plant Material
Myths of So-Called Protection Zones
Risk Associated with Importation of Fruit
Recommendations for the Exclusion of Fire Blight from Countries Without the Disease


Chapter 16: Reducing Inoculum Levels in Previously Infected Orchards

Removal of Holdover Cankers During Winter Pruning
Early-Season Application of Copper
Pruning Out Early-Season Infections
Control of Insect Vectors
Maintaining “Clean” Nursery Stock


INTERFERING WITH THE INFECTION PROCESS

Chapter 17: Fire Blight Risk Assessment Systems and Prediction Models

Technical Theories of Prediction Systems and Models
Practical Application of Prediction Systems


Chapter 18:Chemical Agents That Interfere with Fire Blight Infection

Control of Blossom Blight
Control of Shoot Blight
Chemical Agents


Chapter 19: Biological Control of Fire Blight

Biocontrol by Bacterial Antagonists
Evaluation of Antagonists in Vitro, in the Greenhouse, and in the Orchard
Implementation of Biological Control in Integrated Disease Management
Mechanisms of Biological Control by Bacterial Antagonists
Use of Bacterial Antagonism in Fire Blight Management
Biocontrol by Avirulent Strains, Bacteriophages, and Yeasts
Biocontrol by Natural Compounds


Chapter 20: Integrated Management Strategies for Fire Blight Control

Successful Commercial Management of Fire Blight of Bartlett Pears in the Central Valley of California
Ten Years of Successful Fire Blight Management in Apples in Southwest Germany Successful Management of Fire Blight of Pears in Israel with the Fire Blight Management (Fire-Man) Project


Appendix 1: Phytobacteriological and Molecular Biology Techniques

Phytopathological, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization
Bacteriology
Taxonomy
Isolation
Culture Media
Diagnosis
Detection and Identification
Identification
Virulence Tests
Pathogenicity Test and Screening for Resistance
Plant Inoculation and Resistance Evaluation
Streptomycin Resistance
Blight Evaluation and Scoring Systems
Management


Appendix 2: Theses and Dissertations on Fire Blight


Appendix 3: Books, Chapters, Reviews, Bulletins, and Feature Articles on Fire Blight (1970–2007)


Appendix 4: American and International Workshops on Fire Blight (1969–2004)


Index

"...a powerful assessment of the science and nature of one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases affecting fruit trees...an in-depth assessment of the problem. A 'must' for an in-depth botany holding."
—The Midwest Book Review

"...strongly recommend this book to attention of plant pathologists and to each agricultural and natural science libraries."
—Journal of Plant Protection Research

Publish Date: 2012
Format: 8.5" x 11" hardcover
ISBN: 978-0-89054-394-8
Pages: 460
Images: 122 color images; 53 black and white images
Publication Weight: 4 lbs

By Tom van der Zwet, Noemi Orolaza-Halbrendt, and Wolfgang Zeller

List Price:329.00

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