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Fusarium Mycotoxins: Chemistry, Genetics, and Biology
Fusarium Mycotoxins: Chemistry, Genetics, and Biology
"This book has to find its way onto the shelves of everyone interested in Fusarium toxins whether they be teachers, students, researchers or involved in legislation and food safety and control, and it will also provide mycologists with an insight into recent ideas about species concepts in this genus."
—Mycological Research

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This comprehensive book examines the chemistry, genetics, and biology of Fusarium mycotoxins. It covers major and minor mycotoxins and other biologically active metabolites that can be harmful to both human and animal health. Past and present research is covered, providing both a historical concept on the topic, as well as guidelines for further research. Descriptions of Fusarium species assist in visual identification of species, while complete profiles will help assess risk as well give a background on geographic trends. And tables summarizing the distribution of mycotoxins among Fusarium species allow for quick reference to mycotoxins and Fusarium species.

The book begins by presenting landmarks in the study of Fusarium mycotoxins from 1809 to 2005. These historical case studies and controversies document the relevance of mycotoxins to human and animal health. Also included is a thorough review of the molecular genetics of both trichothecene and fumonisin biosynthesis, presenting more than 15 years of molecular biological research in an accessible form. Part one then reviews the natural occurrence and toxicity of agriculturally important mycotoxins, with historical case studies of suspected mycotoxicoses in humans and animals. These chapters also contain updates on the molecular genetics of additional mycotoxins and the importance of mycotoxins in plant diseases.

This useful reference presents concise descriptions of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species, as defined by the most recent concepts of fungal species biology and evolution. Each species’ report includes a risk assessment based on its mycotoxin profile, occurrence in food and feed crops, and association with human and animal mycotoxicoses. Data on species distribution, mycotoxin profiles, and animal toxicity facilitate risk assessment for food and feed safety.

This book will be of interest to agronomists, biological chemists, cereal chemists, food technologists, fungal geneticists, human nutritionists, international agricultural development agencies, molecular microbiologists, mycologists, plant breeders, plant pathologists, toxicologists, veterinary scientists, and advanced students in these fields. In addition, public health regulatory agencies that are interested in assessing and managing risks associated with Fusarium mycotoxins in food and feeds will find this an excellent resource.

Fusarium Mycotoxins: Chemistry, Genetics, and Biology


Introduction to Fusarium Mycotoxicology


Part One. Fusarium Mycotoxins

Chapter 1. Trichothecenes

Historical Case Studies

Historical Case 1: Alimentary Toxic Aleukia in Russia and Central Asia
Historical Case 2: Akakabi-byo in Japan
Historical Case 3: Swine Feed Refusal in the Central United States
Historical Case 4: The Yellow Rain Controversy

Trichothecene Chemistry

Overview of Trichothecene-Producing Fusarium Species
Identification and Analysis of Trichothecenes
Natural Occurrence of Trichothecenes

In North America
In South America
In Europe
In Africa
In the Middle East and South Asia
In East Asia
In Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand

Trichothecene Genetics

Trichothecene Biosynthetic Pathway
Trichothecene Biosynthetic Enzymes
Trichothecene Biosynthetic Genes

Trichodiene Synthase (TR15)
Cytochrome P450 Monoxygenases
Enzymes that Add or Remove Ester Groups
Transcription Factors and Transporters
Coregulated Genes

Trichothecene Biology

Mechanism of Action of Trichothecenes
Biological Activity of Trichothecenes in Animal Systems
Biological Activity of Trichothcenes in Plant Systems
Applications of Trichothecenes to Plant Breeding


Chapter 2. Zearalenones

Historical Case Study

Case Study: Swine Estrogenic Syndrome in the Central United States

Zearalenone Chemistry

Overview of Zearalenone-Producing Fusarium Species
Identification and Analysis of Zearalenones
Natural Occurrence of Zearalenones

In North America
In South America
In Europe
In Africa
In Asia
In Australia and New Zealand

Zearalenone Genetics

Zearalenone Biosynthesis

Zearalenone Biology

Mechanism of Action of Zearalenones
Biological Activity of Zearalenones in Animal Systems
Biological Activity of Zearalenones in Plant Systems and Applications to Plant Breeding


Chapter 3. Fumonisins

Historical Case Studies

Historical Case 1: Equine Leukoencephalomalacia in the United States
Historical Case 2: Swine Pulmonary Edema in the Central United States
Historical Case 3: Esophageal Cancer in South Africa
Historical Case 4: Neural Tube Defects Along the Texas-Mexico Border

Fumonisin Chemistry

Overview of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species
Identification and Analysis of Fumonisins
Natural Occurrence of Fumonisins

In North America
In South America
In Europe
In Africa
In the Middle East and South Asia
In East Asia
In Southeast Asia and Australia

Fumonisin Genetics

Fumonisin Biosynthetic Pathway
Fumonisin Biosynthetic Genes

Polyketide Synthase (FUM1)
C-3 Carbonyl Reductase (FUM13)
Fumonisin 5-Oxygenase (FUM3)
Tricarballylic Esterification (FUM7, FUM10, FUM11, and FUM14)
Additional Required Genes in the FUM1 Gene Cluster
Additional Coregulated Genes in the FUM1 Gene Cluster

Fumonisin Biology

Mechanism of Action of Fumonisins
Biological Activity of Fumonisins in Animal Systems
Biological Activity of Fumonisins in Plant Systems
Applications of Fumonisins to Plant Breeding

Chapter 4. Other Selected Mycotoxins

Beauvericin

Chemistry
Genetics
Biology

Enniatins

Chemistry
Genetics
Biology

Fusaproliferin

Chemistry
Biology

Fusaric Acids

Chemistry
Biology

Fusarins

Chemistry
Biology

Moniliformin

Chemistry
Genetics
Biology

Chapter 5. Other Selected Metabolites

Acuminatum
Butenolide
Chlamydosporol
Culmorin
Cyclodepsipeptide HA23
Cyclonerodiol
Equisetin
Fusarochromanone
Gibberellins
Naphthoquinones
Sambutoxin
Wortmannin

Part Two. Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species

Chapter 6. Selected Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species

Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium armeniacum
Fusarium acutatum
Fusarium andiyazi
Fusarium anthophilum
Fusarum avenaceum, Fusarium aywerte,
and Fusarium nurragi
Fusarium begoniae
Fusarium beomiforme
Fusarium camptoceras
Fusarium chlamydosporum
Fusarium circinatum
Fusarium compactum
Fusarium concentricum
Fusarium crookwellense (
syn. Fusarium cerealis)
Fusarium culmorum
Fusarium denticulatum
Fusarium dlamini
Fusarium equiseti
Fusarium fujikuroi
Fusarium globosum
Fusarium graminearum
Fusarium guttiforme
Fusarium konzum
Fusarium kyushuense
Fusarium lateritium
Fusarium moniliforme (
see Fusarium verticillioides)
Fusarium napiforme
Fusarium nygamai
Fusarium oxysporum
Fusarium phyllophilum
Fusarium poae
Fusarium proliferatum
Fusarium pseudograminearum
Fusarium sacchari
Fusarium sambucinum
Fusarium semitectum
Fusarium solani
Fusarium sporotrichioides
Fusarium subglutinans
Fusarium thapsinum
Fusarium torulosum
Fusarium tricinctum
Fusarium venenatum
Fusarium verticillioides


Literature Cited
Index

"This book will be of great interest and value to plant pathologists as well as to veterinary and medical toxicologists as all these fields have been incorporated into this book. The fact that part "Literature Cited" counts 759 references shows how broad is the book subject."
—Journal of Plant Protection Research

“…brings together most of the relevant available information to help understand this important group of mycotoxigenic moulds… particularly useful to undergraduate and post-graduate students to obtain the necessary knowledge on this group of plant pathogens and spoilage moulds.”
—Journal of Agricultural Science

“…more than a twofold increase in toxin reports for Fusarium species since 1984. One of the greatest events in this period was the isolation and characterization of the most insidious and most highly carcinogenic Fusarium mycotoxin, fumonisin. These developments justify an authoritative new review of the whole topic, a mandate which the book admirably adopts…altogether this was a very successful production.”
—Nova Hedwigia

“This book will be of interest to agronomists, biological chemists, cereal chemists, food technologists, fungal geneticists, human nutritionists, international agricultural development agencies, molecular microbiologists, mycologists, plant breeders, plant pathologists, toxicologists, veterinary scientists, and advanced students in these fields.”
—Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses

“This is a true work of biological scholarship…an excellently written, authoritative, detailed and timely account of mycotoxins. They should command far greater attention as the importance of deficiencies in global food security become ever more apparent. She [author] is to be commended for the time successfully invested in writing this monograph. Biologists with other specialisms will find this a work worthy of their interest.”
—Biologist

“…highlights new species and newly discovered mycotoxins and really brings to life major advances in the field…the book is well organized, which makes the presentation simple and elegant for such a comprehensive and important topic."
—Inoculum

“…a well structured, concise collection of up-to-date information on toxigenic species of Fusarium and their toxins… This book has to find its way onto the shelves of everyone interested in Fusarium toxins whether they be teachers, students, researchers or involved in legislation and food safety and control.”
—Microbiology Today

“The topic, concept and contents of the book can be considered an extraordinarily interesting and up-to-date review of recent progress in the area of Fusarium mycotoxins."
—Czech Mycology

"The general design of the book makes it an ideal reference text with a comprehensive bibliography and thorough index and as such would be ideal for any library...the book is compact and concise and very reasonably priced..."
—Plant Pathology

"This book has to find its way onto the shelves of everyone interested in Fusarium toxins whether they be teachers, students, researchers or involved in legislation and food safety and control, and it will also provide mycologists with an insight into recent ideas about species concepts in this genus."
—Mycological Research

Publish Date: 2006
Format: 6" x 9” hardcover
ISBN: 978-0-89054-335-1
Pages: 260
Images: 27 black and white images
Publication Weight: 2 lbs

By Anne E. Desjardins

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