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Hypersensitive Reaction in Plants to Pathogens
Hypersensitive Reaction in Plants to Pathogens
Describes the HR phenomenon as it develops across the broad array of host-pathogen interactions.
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Examines fungus-, virus-, and bacteria-induced hypersensitive reactions. The historical aspects, biochemical-physiological, ultrastructural, and specific genetic factors implicated in the induction and development of these reactions are also discussed.

From the Preface:

Both authors have for more than two decades conducted research on a general defense system in plants against pathogens. Our efforts have focused primarily on the induction of this defense system, the hypersensitive reaction (HR), by plant pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, it is clear that HR is operative in plants infected by viruses and fungi as well.

We propose to describe this phenomenon as it develops across the broad array of host-pathogen interactions. The historical aspects, biochemical-physiological, ultrastuctural and specific genetic factors implicated in the induction and development of HR are defined in some detail. We summarize our understanding of how HR proceeds, based primarily on data from research conducted on bacterial elicitation of the phenomenon. Finally, a number of unsolved basic questions pertinent to the induction and development of HR remain, and these will be delineated.

The authors dedicate this book to a few of the many who. Over the years, have studied HR most intensively.

The Hypersensitive Reaction in Plants to Pathogens: A Resistance Phenomenon


Acknowledgement
Foreword


The Fungus Induced Hypersensitive Reaction (HR)

Some historical aspects
HR-defined
The fungus model
Histological Chronology of HR-induced cell death
Relationship of cyclosis suppression to HR
Ultrastructural and histological aspects of HR induced by biotrophic fungi
Respiratory processes leading to melanization and gelation
Direct evidence for membrane damage
A requirement for de nova protein synthesis?
Potentiation of the HR response of tissue by aging
Number of potato cells contributing to the development of rapid HR
Do phytoalexins cause HR-induced host cell death?
Relationship of enzymes synthesizing phytoalexins to HR
Role of haustorium in the HR
Variations in HR development in host and non-host tissue

In monokaryon and dikaryon infections
In non-host tissue

HR reflects the sensitivity of mesophyll cells to Erisyphe graminis var. hordie haustoria
Host cell death precedes fungus suppression in Bremia lactucae-induced HR
HR is a point response of the plasmalemma to haustoria of Puccinia graminis
The effect of temperature on HR development in Puccinia-infected wheat
Elicitor and receptor of the HR phenomenon
Binding of Fungal components to host cell
Influence of hyphal wall components (HWC) on potato protoplasts
The hypersensitivity inhibiting factor (HIF)
Elicitation of HR by arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid
Interaction between elicitor (AA), lipoxygenase and peroxidase in HR development
The relationship of lipoxygenase to light in controlling HR-related necrosis
Glucans, enhancers and suppressors of HR
The apparent dual function of abscisic acid on induced resistance
Membrane potential changes induced by HR
role of oxygen radicals in HR induction
NAADPH oxidase, a basis for an elevated HR potential?
The role of NADPH oxidase in HR development
Oxygen radical generation in other hosts
Role of water soluble glucans (WSG)
Activation of NADPH oxidase
Evidence for the hydroxyl radical involvement in HR-related phytoalexin accumulation
Some doubt in the oxygen radical-HR hypothesis
H202-the result of the conversion of an elicitor to a second messenger?
Site of action and fate of the elicitor in planta
The ontogeny of H202
Expression of HR and pathogenesis genes
Genetic manipulation of the fungal genome


The Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Reaction

Introduction
What is virus-induced HR Infection process of TMV in tobacco resulting in
     HR (local lesion)
Portals of entry for virus particles or RNA
Role of temperature in replication and necrosis
Membrane damage and electrolyte leakage
Influence of a toxicity factor in HR development
Graft transmission of HR
Ultrastructural effects of HR
Host cell wall compositional changes in local lesion (HR)
Respiratory changes associated with HR
Relationship of oxygen radicals to virus-induced local lesion formation
Role of the N and N' genes in HR development
HR induction of altered RNA or Protein
Elicitor for N gene expression of HR


The Bacteria-Induced Hypersensitive Reaction

Historical aspects and general considerations
Relationships between bacteria and plants

Bacteria on the plant surface
The leaf intercellular space
Saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria and plants
Role of bacterial extracellular polysaccharides
Multiplication of bacteria

Nature of pathogenesis by leaf-spotting bacteria

Nutrient supply
Permeability changes during bacterial pathogensis
Membrane potential studies

Nature of bacteria-induced hypersensitive reaction

Requirement of living bacteria for HR induction
Attachment and recognition of bacteria
Requirement for bacteria/plant contact
Attachment or localization of bacteria
Role of bacterial surface molecules

Expression of bacteria-induced HR

Ultrastructural characteristics
Macroscopic vs. microscopic HR

Alterations of cell membrane

Electrolyte efflux
Strong ion difference
Role of calcium
Electrical membrane potential (Em)

Lipid peroxidation

Role of lipoxygenase in lipid peroxidation
Oxidative burst

Alterations of solute and water transport
Status of stomata during HR
Conditions that alter the HR expression


Genes Controlling Pathogenicity and the Hypersensitive Reaction

Historical aspects of hrp genes
Control of hrp gene expression
Export of hrp gene product(s)

hrp gene activation by the host plant or environmental factors

Harpin: the first bacterial elecitor
Avirulence genes and the gene-for-gene concept
Relationship between hrp and avr genes
avr gene products

AvrD
AvrBs3


Summary
Unanswered Questions Concerning HR Development
Literature citations
Index
About the Authors
Publish Date: 1994
Format: 6" x 9" softcover
ISBN: 978-0-89054-165-4
Pages: 256
Images: 77 black and white images
Publication Weight: 1 lbs

By R. N. Goodman and A. J. Novacky

The Hypersensitive Reaction in Plants to Pathogens: A Resistance Phenomenon

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